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Very large impact craters greater than 300 kilometers (185 miles) across are called impact basins. The size and shape of the crater and the amount of material excavated depends on factors such as the velocity and mass of the impacting body and the geology of the surface.The faster the incoming impactor, the larger the crater.The crater is about 1.2 kilometers (a little more than 0.5 miles) across and 200 meters (650 feet) deep.
Such a high-speed impact produces a crater that is approximately 20 times larger in diameter than the impacting object.Smaller planets have less gravitational "pull" than large planets; impactors will strike at lower speeds.The greater the mass of the impactor, the greater the size of crater. More elongate craters can be produced if an impactor strikes the surface at a very low angle — less than 20 degrees.Approximately 80% of Earth's surface is less than 200 million years old, while over 99% of the Moon's surface is more than 3 billion years old.Essentially, the Moon's surface has not been modified since early in its history, so most of its craters are still visible. Barringer Crater (Meteor Crater) in Arizona, United States, is a simple crater created when a 50-meter-wide (160-foot-wide) iron-rich meteroid struck Earth's surface about 50,000 years ago — a very recent event to a geologist.